Treaties Recognition Week 

November 5-11, 2023

St. Clair Catholic District School Board Acknowledgement of Ancestral Lands

We are thankful for the Creator’s gift of Mother Earth, providing everything we need for life: air, water, land, and all of Creation. We acknowledge that this land, surrounded by water, on which we are gathered today is part of the ancestral land of the Anishinaabeg and the Lunaapeewak. Together, as treaty people, we have a shared responsibility to act with respect for the environment, protecting the future for those generations to come. 

Language Pronunciations     Anishinaabeg  (ah-nish-i-nah-beg)     Lunaapeewak  (le-naw-powuk)                                   

Artwork by Cedric Isaac, Bkejwanong Territory

Sparking Inquiry with Questions  

The following questions have been created using the curriculum expectations to frame classroom thinking around treaty education across all grade levels.  

Primary Junior: 




Sign Up for Live Events During Treaty Week  ... 

Face to Face Connections Throughout the Week across SCCDSB

SCCDSB In Person Partner Schedule Treaty Recognition Week 2023

Did You Know? has a series of virtual Living Library videos, treaty maps, and learning resources for elementary, secondary, and post-secondary students, and the broader public across the province: (English) and (French)  and Interactive Maps

Here are some highlights of resources to connect with: 

Elementary Curriculum Guide (English) (French)

Secondary Guide (accompanying hands on kit, Gdoo-sastamoo kii mi, is in your school) 

Video Resources along with discussion guides:  and 

In these videos, Indigenous Elders and knowledge keepers from across Ontario share their perspectives on the importance of treaties, treaty relationships and treaty rights in Ontario. Below are some suggestions for grade-specific videos that include a worksheet to help guide discussion in your classroom. Scroll up and down on the site for more videos.  

Early Years: Chad Solomon (and Rabbit) on what is a promise | Worksheet - Chad Solomon video (French descriptive video and French worksheet

Grades 1 - 6: Maurice Switzer on what is a treaty anyway | Worksheet – Maurice Switzer video  (French descriptive video and French worksheet) 

Grade 9 Geography: Bentley Cheechoo on becoming a treaty Knowledge Keeper | Worksheet – Bentley Cheechoo video   (French descriptive video and French worksheet) 

Grade 10 Civics and Citizenship: Robert Greene on how treaties affect all aspects of life | Worksheet – Robert Green video  (French descriptive video and French worksheet)

French video resources for elementary & secondary

Treaty Week Board Wide Learning ...

... Learning Local and Thinking About Place 

Aamjiwnaang with David Plain.mp4

David Plain, Aamjiwnaang First Nation, talks about Aamjiwnaang, "it flows contrary". 

(6 min)

Cecil Isaac Bkejwanong.mp4

Cecil Isaac, Bkejwanong Territory, talks about Bkejwanong, “where the waters divide”.

(5 min)

Deb and Barry Milliken Kettle and Stony Point Reflect about Home.mp4

Deb and Barry Milliken, Kettle and Stony Point, talk about Kettle Point, also known as Wiiwkwedong “where the land goes around in a bay”, and Stony Point, known as Aazhoodena “the part over there”.

(12 min - with a natural pausing point at 6.30 to reflect about worldview and connection to place)

Thinking About Treaties as Relationships with All of Creation 

Deb and Barry Milliken Perspective on Treaties as Relationships with all of Creation.mp4

Deb and Barry Milliken, Kettle and Stony Point First Nation, think about treaties as a relationship with all of Creation. 

(7.30 min)

What is my relationship with all of creation

Thinking About Wampum Belts 

David Plain talks about the Dish with One Spoon and Two Row Wampum Belts with pics.mp4

David Plain, Aamjiwnaang First Nation, Author and Historian, talks about the Dish with One Spoon and Two Row Wampum Belts (4.30 min)

What are different perspectives and how do they impact me today? 

Classroom Learning Resources

Treaty Week Reflection 

Let us remember that our Indigenous neighbours gently walked this land.

Let us remember that Treaties are promises.

Let us respect those promises.

Let us remember all of the promises in our lives.

Let us respect those promises.

Let us remember that bullying causes pain and hurt.

Let us remember to be kind to everyone.

Let us remember to stick up for someone who is being bullied.

Let us remember to treat others the way we want to be treated.

Let us remember to love our neighbours.


Let us know peace. 

For as long as the moon shall rise.

For as long as the rivers shall flow. 

For as long as the sun shall shine.  

For as long as the grass shall grow.

Let us know peace.   

                               Cheyenne Prayer 

Did you know.....

Treaties Recognition Week was introduced to honour the importance of treaties and to help Ontarians learn more about treaty rights and treaty relationships.

Every Ontarian is a treaty person

Most of Ontario is covered by 46 treaties and  other agreements, such as land purchases by    the Crown signed between 1781 and 1930

First Nations had their own process of Treaty-making that had existed for thousands of years

Treaties are legal agreements between two or more nations

Treaty-making preceded North American settlement.

Treaty outlines the terms, relationship and conditions of settlement in Indigenous Territories. 

Both Settler and Indigenous Nations have a responsibility for knowing and upholding the Treaty obligations.

United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples recognizes, “the urgent need to respect and promote the rights of Indigenous peoples affirmed in treaties, agreements and other constructive arrangements with States” 

(First Nations, Métis, and Inuit Education Association of Ontario)

Call 62.i. - Education for Reconciliation (TRC Calls to Action)

“We call upon the federal, provincial, and territorial governments, in consultation and collaboration with Survivors, Aboriginal peoples, and educators, to make age-appropriate curriculum on … Treaties … a mandatory education requirement for Kindergarten to Grade 12 students.”

What is a Treaty?

Treaties represent a relationship – built on mutual peace, respect and friendship

They are a way to explain how parties intend to "treat" each other for the duration of a relationship

Recognize First Nations as self-governing nations – which is acknowledged and protected by the Royal Proclamation of 1763 and the Canadian Constitution

There are obligations and benefits on both sides of the Treaties

How Are Treaties Meaningful Today?  

A word from Jason Henry, Kettle and Stony Point First Nation @ChiefStony 

"We look at treaties as a relationship between and among nations. They are a nation to nation agreement. To understand treaties, we start with understanding the creation story." 

Kettle and Stony Point Council

What's Important to Learn About the Historical Context of Treaties? 

A word from Author and Historian David Plain, Aamjiwnaang First Nation @daviddplain

"Words spoken over a wampum were solemn words, never to be broken. When we think about treaties we think about agreeing together: nin bejigwendamin. If we agree together, we have begun reconciliation."

It's All About Relationships 

A word from Cecil Isaac, Bkejwanong Territory (also known as Walpole Island First Nation) 

"It's all about relationships. An equal partnership where together we build this relationship based on our grandfather teachings. Our purpose of being here is to teach the next generation."

Treaties Recognition Curriculum Linked Digital Resources

Interactive Online Learning Portal - This is terrific and comprehensive across the grade levels! 

Ezhi-nawending: How we are related, a free and interactive online learning portal recently launched by Anishinabek Nation. With 80 recorded and colourfully animated videos, plus games and interactive features, it shares lessons Canadians of all ages should learn, in a package that's appealing and fun for kids. It's designed for elementary students, but accessible to anyone with a computer and an internet connection.  

Online Kayak Magazine: Treaties and Treaty Relationships 


Relations: French Resource for Elementary & Secondary

ESRI StoryMap - Treaties and Agreements

This ESRI StoryMap is designed for teachers as an introduction to understanding treaties and agreements between Indigenous Peoples, the Crown, the federal government, as well as provinces and territories. Explore this StoryMap, starting from what is currently referred to as upstate New York, to learn about the Two-Row Wampum Treaty, then journey over to the eastern coast of Canada to discover the history of the Peace and Friendship Treaties. Make your way west, learning about the Pre-Confederation Treaties, Numbered Treaties, and Métis scrip, and then travel north to learn about Inuit land claims. Finish your journey by exploring a map of the modern treaties within Canada. 

Voices From Here Interactive Resource

Voices from Here: Rick Hill 

In this interview, Rick Hill shares about the complexities of Haudenosaunee territory, wampum belt teachings, and his work to repatriate material culture to his community.


This Education Guide references the Naskumituwin (Treaty) Heritage Minute. Click here to watch the Minute


This Education Guide references à la Minute du patrimoine Naskumituwin (Traite). Click here to watch the Minute: : 

FR_basic_5Ws_chart (1).pdf

Four Classroom Lessons for Grades 7-12 for Treaty Education Week

Picture Books to Support Treaty Education

(the books listed in this doc are in all schools)

Scholastic Resources    

(10 copies of each in every school)

Books to Support Treaty Recognition Week

Community Ties: What makes communities strong? Exploring First Nations, Inuit, and Métis Cultures

Scholastic Resource: Community Ties

We Are the Land: How are people connected to the land?

“Treaties are responsible for the peaceful settlement of what everybody knows as Canada today,” Switzer, a Muskrat and Wolf Clan member of the Mississaugas of Alderville First Nation, says in an educational video produced by Anishinabek Nation.

That’s why it’s important for all Canadians to learn about the land treaties that govern us.

These books are in every school.

Wampum Belts

Wampum Belt Teaching Kit 

David Plain, Aamjiwnaang First Nation, Author and Historian, talks with classes about Wampum Belts. 

David Plain talks about the Dish with One Spoon and Two Row Wampum Belts with pics.mp4

David Plain, Aamjiwnaang First Nation, Author and Historian, talks about the Dish with One Spoon and Two Row Wampum Belts (4.30 min)

David Plain Wampum Belts 2020.mp4

David Plain, Aamjiwnaang First Nation, Author and Historian, talks about a series of Wampum Belts that are included in the Wampum Belt Teaching Kits at every school.  (50 min)

Maurice Switzer: 

The Wampum Belt: A Nation to Nation Relationship

5.34 min

Learn the Importance of Wampum

Alan Ojiig Corbiere discusses Wampum Belts and their direct relevance to the relationships between Indigenous peoples and Canada.  Wampum Belts are living symbols of our treaty agreements and the honour of keeping them, among other things.

The Two Row Wampum

The Dish With One Spoon

Watch Isaac Murdoch from Serpent River First Nation explain the significance of the Dish With One Spoon Wampum agreement. 


David Plain Local Treaty Education 2020.mp4

50 min

David Plain, Aamjiwnaang First Nation, Author and Historian, talks with classes about Local Treaties

Maurice Switzer on Treaties 

We Are All Treaty People - Full Book Online Version 

Nous sommes tous des gens issus de traités - Livre complet

Digital Toolkit & School Hands On Kit



Elementary Treaty Education Digital Resource: Ezhi-Nawending: How We Are Related is for grades K-8

Secondary Treaty Education Digital Resource: Gdoo-Sastamoo Kii Mi: This is our Understanding is for grades 9-12

We Are All Treaty People Kit Explanation

(These kits are in elementary schools) 

Anishinabek Nation: Gdoo-Sastamoo Kii Mi Treaty Education Kit Explanation (This kit is in secondary schools) 

Our Treaty History: Bkejwanong Territory

Our Treaty History: Bkejwanong Territory

Our Treaty History.pdf

The St. Anne Treaty: Walpole Island First Nation

1796: The St. Anne Treaty

Treaties Matter: Understanding Ipperwash


Out of response to the Ipperwash crisis of 1995, a virtual exhibit was created by Summer Bressette, Kettle and Stony Point First Nation, and Monica Virtue with the Lambton Museum. It is called  / We Are Going Home. 

Using interviews, maps, moving images, soundscapes, and wampum, it illustrates the relationship between people, land, and Anishinaabeg Nationhood.

The slide deck along with the virtual talk can be found here.  

The James Bay Treaty (Treaty No. 9) Exhibit

Archives of Ontario James Bay Treaty lesson kits for grade 6 and grade 9 students and map of Treaty No. 9 signing locations


Map of Ontario Treaties and Reserves 

This resource allows you to input your city, address, or postal code to find out which treaties between the government and Indigenous Nations were made on the land you are on.  

Office of the Treaty Commissioner Treaty Map: Descriptions of the 11 Numbered Treaties 

Treaties and Land Claims


Comprehensive Land Claims: Modern Treaties

Revendications territoriales globales : traités modernes

Video Resources 

Trick or Treaty?

This feature documentary by acclaimed filmmaker Alanis Obomsawin (Kanehsatake: 270 Years of Resistance) profiles Indigenous leaders in their quest for justice as they seek to establish dialogue with the Canadian government. By tracing the history of their ancestors since the signing of Treaty No. 9, these leaders aim to raise awareness about issues vital to First Nations in Canada: respect for and protection of their lands and their natural resources, and the right to hunt and fish so that their societies can prosper. In recent years, an awareness-raising movement has been surfacing in First Nations communities. In this powerful documentary, those who refuse to surrender are given a chance to speak out.


Classroom Strategies and Teaching Resource Links 

A series of six webinars produced by Canada's History Society and the Treaty Relations Commission of Manitoba, which aims to present diverse perspectives on treaties. Topics include the significance of the Royal Proclamation and the relationship between treaties and the Indian Act. 


Indigenous Perspectives Education Guide 

Indigenous_Perspectives_Education_Guide (1).pdf

Guide pédagogiques perspectives autochtones


Online Resource for Primary, Junior, and Intermediate Classrooms 

This resource contains direct links to the Ontario Catholic Graduate Expectations, the Catholic Virtues as well as the 7 Sacred Grandfather Teachings of the Anishinaabek.


The Fisher Story

Central to this resource is The Fisher Story as shared by Isaac Murdoch. This focus of learning is in relation to Indigenous knowledge systems, the environment and how we are intricately connected.  Throughout the story, many lessons are learned in regards to our conduct as well as our roles and responsibilities.  

Prior to reading or watching The Fisher Story it is recommended that teachers take time to activate student thinking with regards to existing knowledge.  Consider introducing key concepts such as love, balance, respect, and our relationship with all of creation.  

Sacred Fisher Story - Animated Version

Cross-Curricular Activities

After reading or watching The Fisher Story, there are many possible activities that can be done to reinforce and further explore the story’s messages.

Although there are a variety of themes embedded within the story, this resource focuses on 7 big ideas:

Each big idea has an explanation, supporting video and sample lesson plans.

Lesson plans and video resources including a treaties video series, treaty texts from the Robinson and Williams Treaties, and the full text of the Royal Proclamation of 1763.

The Royal Proclamation 

The Treaties: Two Different Views  

Compare and Contrast Perspectives: 

Government View on Treaties/ First Nations View on Treaties

European View on Land Ownership/ First Nations View on Land Ownership 

First Nations View on Leadership & Consensus/ European View on Leadership & Consensus


Assesmbly of First Nations Treaty Toolkit


Treaty Resources Google Folder

Treaties Recognition Week helps students, staff, and the public learn about treaties from diverse Indigenous perspectives and encourages greater understanding of the importance of treaties in Ontario. Treaties negotiated in Ontario over the past 250 years are the foundation of the relationship between governments and Indigenous peoples. They represent a mutual commitment to building a prosperous future for everyone. Historical treaties are important to the ongoing relationship between the Crown and First Nations and are still relevant today. By building understanding of these agreements, we are moving towards reconciliation with Indigenous people. This helps create equitable and respectful relationships, enabling a better way forward together.