Treaty Recognition

November 1- 7, 2020

St. Clair Catholic District School Board Acknowledgement of Ancestral Lands

We are thankful for the Creator’s gift of Mother Earth, providing everything we need for life: air, water, land, and all of Creation. We acknowledge that this land, surrounded by water, on which we are gathered today is part of the ancestral land of the Anishinaabeg and later the Lunaapeewak. Together, as treaty people, we have a shared responsibility to act with respect for the environment, protecting the future for those generations to come.

Language Pronunciations Anishinaabeg (ah-nish-i-nah-beg) Lunaapeewak (le-naw-powuk) Artwork by Cedric Isaac, Bkejwanong Territory

Sign Up for Live Events During Treaty Week

Register for all live events here by Oct 28. Sessions are geared to K-12 classes.

Monday, November 2

Relationships with the Land and the Environment

Biindigaygizhig Danny Deleary, from Chippewas of the Thames First Nation, will be leading a reflection about relationships with the environment, past and present. He will share thinking about the different viewpoints of land use, how this impacts the environment, and how our actions today impact the future.

K-2 2-4 5-12

Monday, Nov 2

Exploring Significant Events & Impacts between Indigenous Nations, the British Crown, and Canada

Isaac Murdoch, Serpent River First Nation, will be exploring the impacts of colonization, how the interactions between the Early Europeans and Indigenous Nations changed overtime, and how events leading up to confederation still impact Indigenous Peoples today. (hosted by FNMIAEO)


Tuesday, Nov 3

Impacts of Treaties Today and Treaty Relationships

Chief Jason Henry from Kettle and Stony Point First Nation will be leading a discussion around the impact of treaties today, responsibilities we all have as treaty people, and relationships with the land.


Wednesday, Nov 4

Storytelling and the Land

Moses Lunham, artist and storyteller from Kettle and Stony Point First Nation, will engage students in storytelling connected to the land and environment.


Wednesday, Nov 4

Wampum Belts

David Plain, author and historian from Aamjiwnaang First Nation, will be leading a discussion about treaty relationships and stories connected to the wampum belts.


Thursday, Nov 5

Treaties as Promises: A Hands On Experience

Cecil Isaac, Elder from Bkejwanong Territory, will be leading a reflection about relationships and treaties as promises. As part of the reflection, students will have an opportunity to make their own individual wampum strings to continue to think about relationships and promises for the future. (Materials required - 20 multicoloured beads, 1 x 20 cm string per student)


Wampum Strings - Hands on Experience

wampun string exercise for school

Thursday, Nov 5

Treaty Misinformed

Isaac Murdoch, Serpent River First Nation, will explore the true history of what happened and how Canada assumed jurisdiction over Indigenous lands. (hosted by FNMIAEO)


Thursday, Nov 5

Local Treaties

David Plain, author and historian from Aamjiwnaang First Nation, will be leading a discussion about local treaties of our surrounding area.


Friday, Nov 6

Paint Lesson

Moses Lunham, artist and storyteller from Kettle and Stony Point First Nation, will be leading a reflection and art lesson with students with the theme of “We Are All Treaty People”. This art lesson will connect the learning throughout the week and reflect on connections to the land and to one another.

Materials needed: Heavy White Paper (painting paper, card stock, or canvas); Paint (red, yellow, blue, white, black), Paint Brushes (small/medium), Pencil


Friday, Nov 6

Impacts of Treaties Today and Treaty Relationships

Chief Jason Henry from Kettle and Stony Point First Nation will be leading a part 2 discussion around the impact of treaties today, responsibilities we all have as treaty people, and relationships with the land and connecting to youth questions.


Friday, Nov 6

Live Living Library Series

Treaties Recognition Week Live Living Library Series. TRW Ontario is hosting a virtual event exploring the theme of We are all Treaty people.

Panelists: Maurice Switzer & Robert Greene

(hosted by TRW Ontario)

Youth Leadership Session

Secondary Youth Leadership

Tuesday, Nov 3

Cecil Isaac, Elder from Bkejwanong Territory, and Deb and Barry Millken, Elders from Kettle and Stony Point First Nation will be leading an evening reflection for Youth Leadership to think about relationships and roles.

Register here

FNMI AEO Supporting Educators in Treaty Education with a series of learning sessions taking place before Treaty Recognition Week

Classroom Display Contest

Create a display to teach others about the importance of being a treaty person and that we are ALL treaty people! Send a pic of your class display to by October 28 to be entered to receive a class prize to raise awareness during treaty week.

Treaty Week Reflection

Let us remember that our Indigenous neighbours gently walked this land.

Let us remember that Treaties are promises.

Let us respect those promises.

Let us remember all of the promises in our lives.

Let us respect those promises.

Let us remember that bullying causes pain and hurt.

Let us remember to be kind to everyone.

Let us remember to stick up for someone who is being bullied.

Let us remember to treat others the way we want to be treated.

Let us remember to love our neighbours.


Let us know peace.

For as long as the moon shall rise.

For as long as the rivers shall flow.

For as long as the sun shall shine.

For as long as the grass shall grow.

Let us know peace.

Cheyenne Prayer

Did you know.....

Treaties Recognition Week was introduced to honour the importance of treaties and to help Ontarians learn more about treaty rights and treaty relationships.

Every Ontarian is a treaty person

Most of Ontario is covered by 46 treaties and other agreements, such as land purchases by the Crown signed between 1781 and 1930

First Nations had their own process of Treaty-making that had existed for thousands of years

Treaties are legal agreements between two or more nations

Treaty-making preceded North American settlement.

Treaty outlines the terms, relationship and conditions of settlement in Indigenous Territories.

Both Settler and Indigenous Nations have a responsibility for knowing and upholding the Treaty obligations.

United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples recognizes, “the urgent need to respect and promote the rights of Indigenous peoples affirmed in treaties, agreements and other constructive arrangements with States”

(First Nations, Métis, and Inuit Education Association of Ontario)

Call 62.i. - Education for Reconciliation (TRC Calls to Action)

“We call upon the federal, provincial, and territorial governments, in consultation and collaboration with Survivors, Aboriginal peoples, and educators, to make age-appropriate curriculum on … Treaties … a mandatory education requirement for Kindergarten to Grade 12 students.”

What is a Treaty?

Treaties represent a relationship – built on mutual peace, respect and friendship

They are a way to explain how parties intend to "treat" each other for the duration of a relationship

Recognize First Nations as self-governing nations – which is acknowledged and protected by the Royal Proclamation of 1763 and the Canadian Constitution

There are obligations and benefits on both sides of the Treaties

How Are Treaties Meaningful Today?

A word from Chief Jason Henry, Kettle and Stony Point First Nation @ChiefStony

"We look at treaties as a relationship between and among nations. They are a nation to nation agreement. To understand treaties, we start with understanding the creation story."

Kettle and Stony Point Council

What's Important to Learn About the Historical Context of Treaties?

A word from Author and Historian David Plain, Aamjiwnaang First Nation @daviddplain

"Words spoken over a wampum were solemn words, never to be broken. When we think about treaties we think about agreeing together: nin bejigwendamin. If we agree together, we have begun reconciliation."

It's All About Relationships

A word from Cecil Isaac, Bkejwanong Territory (also known as Walpole Island First Nation)

"It's all about relationships. An equal partnership where together we build this relationship based on our grandfather teachings. Our purpose of being here is to teach the next generation."

Treaties Recognition Week helps students, staff, and the public learn about treaties from diverse Indigenous perspectives and encourages greater understanding of the importance of treaties in Ontario. Treaties negotiated in Ontario over the past 250 years are the foundation of the relationship between governments and Indigenous peoples. They represent a mutual commitment to building a prosperous future for everyone. Historical treaties are important to the ongoing relationship between the Crown and First Nations and are still relevant today. By building understanding of these agreements, we are moving towards reconciliation with Indigenous people. This helps create equitable and respectful relationships, enabling a better way forward together.


Sparking Inquiry with Questions

The following questions have been created using the curriculum expectations to frame classroom thinking around treaty education across all grade levels.

  • What is my relationship with the land?

  • What are different perspectives and how do they impact me today?

  • How can I raise awareness?

  • What are my responsibilities?

Primary Junior:

  • What can I learn from the stories connected to the wampum belts?

  • What are the different viewpoints of land use and how does this impact the environment?

  • How do my actions today impact the future?


  • What are the different perspectives of those that entered into treaties?

  • What are the different viewpoints of land use and ownership?

  • How do my actions today impact the future?

  • How can I ensure I am upholding my treaty responsibilities?


  • What treaties cover the area I live in?

  • What rights and responsibilities are detailed in the treaties?

  • Are there any land claims in my area?

  • As an individual what are my treaty responsibilities?

  • What actions can I take to ensure I am upholding my treaty responsibilities?

  • What role does the government play as treaty signatories and in land claims?

  • How can I create awareness of treaties and/or land claims in my area?


  • What is my role in reconciliation?

  • What historical experiences do diverse First Nations share in their Nation to Nation dealings with the Crown over time? Why is this important today?

  • How can I produce information for others to learn what it means to be a treaty person?

Treaties Recognition Curriculum Linked Resources

The following pre-publication document beside has highlights on the changes to curriculum for grades 4-6, 7-8, CDC2D, CDC2P. The updated documents can be found below.


The following side by side overall expectations along with big ideas have been pulled together to support planning across the grades.

Grade 1, 2, 3 Social Studies Overview
Grade 4, 5, 6 Social Studies Overview
Grade 7,8 History Overview

Picture Books to Support Treaty Education

(the books listed in this doc are in all schools)

Books to Support Treaty Recognition Week

We Are All Treaty People - Full Book Online Version

Wampum Belt Teaching Kit

  • every school currently has a wampum belt teaching kit

We Are All Treaty People Kit Explanation

Anishinabek Nation: Gdoo-Sastamoo Kii Mi Treaty Education Kit Explanation

Maurice Switzer on Treaties

Voices from Here: Rick Hill

Scholastic Resources

(multiple copies in every school)

Community Ties: What makes communities strong? Exploring First Nations, Inuit, and Métis Cultures

Scholastic Resource: Community Ties

We Are the Land: How are people connected to the land?


The First Nations and Treaties Map of Ontario resources were created by the Ministry of Aboriginal Affairs to increase awareness among educators and students about treaties in Ontario. Check out ideas for using this map in classrooms, especially in Grade 3, 5-8, 10, 11, and 12 classes. These maps and the accompanying teaching resources are helping students to learn about the significance of the treaties and the shared history of First Nations and non-Indigenous Ontarians. Our province has also designated the first week of November as Treaties Recognition Week to promote public education and awareness about treaties and treaty relationships. Download or order this map through ServiceOntario Publications (1-800-668-9938)

Schools also have 1 large copy of the map.

Map of Ontario Treaties and Reserves

This resource allows you to input your city, address, or postal code to find out which treaties between the government and Indigenous Nations were made on the land you are on.

Office of the Treaty Commissioner Treaty Map: Descriptions of the 11 Numbered Treaties

Video Resources

Trick or Treaty?

This feature documentary by acclaimed filmmaker Alanis Obomsawin (Kanehsatake: 270 Years of Resistance) profiles Indigenous leaders in their quest for justice as they seek to establish dialogue with the Canadian government. By tracing the history of their ancestors since the signing of Treaty No. 9, these leaders aim to raise awareness about issues vital to First Nations in Canada: respect for and protection of their lands and their natural resources, and the right to hunt and fish so that their societies can prosper. In recent years, an awareness-raising movement has been surfacing in First Nations communities. In this powerful documentary, those who refuse to surrender are given a chance to speak out.


A series of six webinars produced by Canada's History Society and the Treaty Relations Commission of Manitoba, which aims to present diverse perspectives on treaties. Topics include the significance of the Royal Proclamation and the relationship between treaties and the Indian Act.

Classroom Strategies and Teaching Resource Links


This Education Guide references the Naskumituwin (Treaty) Heritage Minute. Click here to watch the Minute:


This Education Guide references à la Minute du patrimoine Naskumituwin (Traite). Click here to watch the Minute: :

FR_basic_5Ws_chart (1).pdf

Online Kayak Magazine: Treaties and Treaty Relationships


Indigenous Perspectives Education Guide

Indigenous_Perspectives_Education_Guide (1).pdf

Guide pédagogiques perspectives autochtones


Online Resource for Primary, Junior, and Intermediate Classrooms

This resource contains direct links to the Ontario Catholic Graduate Expectations, the Catholic Virtues as well as the 7 Sacred Grandfather Teachings of the Anishinaabek.


The Fisher Story

Central to this resource is The Fisher Story as shared by Isaac Murdoch. This focus of learning is in relation to Indigenous knowledge systems, the environment and how we are intricately connected. Throughout the story, many lessons are learned in regards to our conduct as well as our roles and responsibilities.

Prior to reading or watching The Fisher Story it is recommended that teachers take time to activate student thinking with regards to existing knowledge. Consider introducing key concepts such as love, balance, respect, and our relationship with all of creation.

Sacred Fisher Story - Animated Version

Cross-Curricular Activities

After reading or watching The Fisher Story, there are many possible activities that can be done to reinforce and further explore the story’s messages.

Although there are a variety of themes embedded within the story, this resource focuses on 7 big ideas:

  1. Zhawenjige: Walking With A Good Heart

  2. Dodem: The Clan System

  3. Mangide’e: Courage

  4. Zaagi’idiwin: Love

  5. Bagijigan: Offerings

  6. Maawanji’idiwag: Working Together in a Good Way

  7. Omdendum: Hope For the Future

Each big idea has an explanation, supporting video and sample lesson plans.

Resource Kits

Each division contains a series of activities based on the 7 big ideas listed above.

Each activity has a downloadable pdf that provides a sample lesson plan as well as possible connections to curriculum from a wide range of subject areas.

“Lessons From the Earth Resource Kit above is a resource guide for educators that provides a practical application of Indigenous Knowledge into the classroom. The focus of learning is grounded in a traditional Anishinaabe story, Jiig Nong Aadsookan, The Fisher Story. Included are sample lessons and video modules that support the traditional teachings embedded within the story. Lessons From the Earth is a provocation for student inquiry into topics such as the environment, First Peoples of Canada, Science, Social Studies, as well as important concepts such as love, respect and balance.” Jodie Williams

Comprehensive Land Claims: Modern Treaties

Lesson plans and video resources including a treaties video series, treaty texts from the Robinson and Williams Treaties, and the full text of the Royal Proclamation of 1763.

Gdoo-Sastamookii Mi: Understanding Our Nation to Relationship – Resource Material from the Teachers Guide with the corresponding page number.

The Royal Proclamation

Treaties Matter: Understanding Ipperwash


The James Bay Treaty (Treaty No. 9) Exhibit

This resource provides information on all of the Treaties made between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people within the boundaries of the province. The site includes teacher resources, books for students, and academic resources.

The Treaties: Two Different Views

Compare and Contrast Perspectives:

Government View on Treaties/ First Nations View on Treaties

European View on Land Ownership/ First Nations View on Land Ownership

First Nations View on Leadership & Consensus/ European View on Leadership & Consensus


Treaty Resources Google Folder