Treaty Recognition

November 3- 9, 2019

Did you know.....

Treaties Recognition Week was introduced to honour the importance of treaties and to help Ontarians learn more about treaty rights and treaty relationships

Every Ontarian is a treaty person

Most of Ontario is covered by 46 treaties and other agreements, such as land purchases by the Crown signed between 1781 and 1930

First Nations had their own process of Treaty-making that had existed for thousands of years

Treaties are legal agreements between two or more nations

(First Nations, Métis, and Inuit Education Association of Ontario)

Call 62.i. - Education for Reconciliation (TRC Calls to Action)

“We call upon the federal, provincial, and territorial governments, in consultation and collaboration with Survivors, Aboriginal peoples, and educators, to make age-appropriate curriculum on … Treaties … a mandatory education requirement for Kindergarten to Grade 12 students.”

What is a Treaty?

Treaties represent a relationship – built on mutual peace, respect and friendship

They are a way to explain how parties intend to "treat" each other for the duration of a relationship

Recognize First Nations as self-governing nations – which is acknowledged and protected by the Royal Proclamation of 1763 and the Canadian Constitution

There are obligations and benefits on both sides of the Treaties

How Are Treaties Still Meaningful Today?

A word from Chief Jason Henry, Kettle and Stony Point First Nation @ChiefStony

"We look at treaties as a relationship between and among nations. They are a nation to nation agreement. To understand treaties, we start with understanding the creation story."

Kettle and Stony Point Council

What's Important to Learn About the Historical Context of Treaties?

A word from Author and Historian David Plain, Aamjiwnaang First Nation @daviddplain

"Words spoken over a wampum were solemn words, never to be broken. When we think about treaties we think about agreeing together: nin bejigwendamin. If we agree together, we have begun reconciliation."

How Can Wampum Strings Be Used in the Classroom?

A word from Cecil Isaac, Bkejwanong Territory (also known as Walpole Island First Nation)

"It's all about relationships. An equal partnership where together we build this relationship based on our grandfather teachings. Our purpose of being here is to teach the next generation."

Wampum Strings

wampun string exercise for school

Treaties Recognition Curriculum Linked Resources

Grade 4, 5, 6 Social Studies Overview

Treaty Resource Folder

Curriculum Linked Resources

Treaty Awareness Curriculum Linked Resources

Picture Books to Support Treaty Education

Books to Support Treaty Recognition Week

We Are All Treaty People - Full Book Online Version

Treaty Kit Explanation

Maurice Switzer on Treaties

Scholastic Resource - (set in every school)

Community Ties: What makes communities strong? Exploring First Nations, Inuit, and Métis Cultures

Scholastic Resource: Community Ties


The First Nations and Treaties Map of Ontario resources were created by the Ministry of Aboriginal Affairs to increase awareness among educators and students about treaties in Ontario. Check out ideas for using this map in classrooms, especially in Grade 3, 6, 8, 10, 11, and 12 classes. These maps and the accompanying teaching resources are helping students to learn about the significance of the treaties and the shared history of First Nations and non-Indigenous Ontarians. Our province has also designated the first week of November as Treaties Recognition Week to promote public education and awareness about treaties and treaty relationships. Download or order this map through ServiceOntario Publications (1-800-668-9938)

Map of Ontario Treaties and Reserves

This resource allows you to input your city, address, or postal code to find out which treaties between the government and Indigenous Nations were made on the land you are on.

Office of the Treaty Commissioner Treaty Map: Descriptions of the 11 Numbered Treaties


Trick or Treaty?

This feature documentary by acclaimed filmmaker Alanis Obomsawin (Kanehsatake: 270 Years of Resistance) profiles Indigenous leaders in their quest for justice as they seek to establish dialogue with the Canadian government. By tracing the history of their ancestors since the signing of Treaty No. 9, these leaders aim to raise awareness about issues vital to First Nations in Canada: respect for and protection of their lands and their natural resources, and the right to hunt and fish so that their societies can prosper. In recent years, an awareness-raising movement has been surfacing in First Nations communities. In this powerful documentary, those who refuse to surrender are given a chance to speak out.


A series of six webinars produced by Canada's History Society and the Treaty Relations Commission of Manitoba, which aims to present diverse perspectives on treaties. Topics include the significance of the Royal Proclamation and the relationship between treaties and the Indian Act.

Classroom Strategies and Teaching Resource Links


Thinking About the Spirit and Intent of Treaties

Let’s Talk Treaty, Episode 2: Spirit and the Intent of Treaties with Elder Harry Bone:




Click on the following Educator's Guide to access ideas for classroom learning --->

Kayak Magazine: Treaties and Treaty Relationships


Lesson plans and video resources including a treaties video series, treaty texts from the Robinson and Williams Treaties, and the full text of the Royal Proclamation of 1763.

<-- Search for "Treaties" in the tool bar on the main page for current and engaging resources to support classroom learning.

This resource provides information on all of the Treaties made between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people within the boundaries of the province. The site includes teacher resources, books for students, and academic resources.

The Treaties: Two Different Views

Compare and Contrast Perspectives:

Government View on Treaties/ First Nations View on Treaties

European View on Land Ownership/ First Nations View on Land Ownership

First Nations View on Leadership & Consensus/ European View on Leadership & Consensus


Assesmbly of First Nations Treaty Toolkit


Online Resource for the Classroom