Treaty Recognition

November 3- 9, 2019

Prayers and Reflections

Treaty Week Reflection

Let us remember that our Indigenous neighbours gently walked this land.

Let us remember that Treaties are promises.

Let us respect those promises.

Let us remember all of the promises in our lives.

Let us respect those promises.

Let us remember that bullying causes pain and hurt.

Let us remember to be kind to everyone.

Let us remember to stick up for someone who is being bullied.

Let us remember to treat others the way we want to be treated.

Let us remember to love our neighbours.


Let us know peace.

For as long as the moon shall rise.

For as long as the rivers shall flow.

For as long as the sun shall shine.

For as long as the grass shall grow.

Let us know peace.

Cheyenne Prayer

Did you know.....

Treaties Recognition Week was introduced to honour the importance of treaties and to help Ontarians learn more about treaty rights and treaty relationships

Every Ontarian is a treaty person

Most of Ontario is covered by 46 treaties and other agreements, such as land purchases by the Crown signed between 1781 and 1930

First Nations had their own process of Treaty-making that had existed for thousands of years

Treaties are legal agreements between two or more nations

(First Nations, Métis, and Inuit Education Association of Ontario)

Call 62.i. - Education for Reconciliation (TRC Calls to Action)

“We call upon the federal, provincial, and territorial governments, in consultation and collaboration with Survivors, Aboriginal peoples, and educators, to make age-appropriate curriculum on … Treaties … a mandatory education requirement for Kindergarten to Grade 12 students.”

What is a Treaty?

Treaties represent a relationship – built on mutual peace, respect and friendship

They are a way to explain how parties intend to "treat" each other for the duration of a relationship

Recognize First Nations as self-governing nations – which is acknowledged and protected by the Royal Proclamation of 1763 and the Canadian Constitution

There are obligations and benefits on both sides of the Treaties

How Are Treaties Still Meaningful Today?

A word from Chief Jason Henry, Kettle and Stony Point First Nation @ChiefStony

"We look at treaties as a relationship between and among nations. They are a nation to nation agreement. To understand treaties, we start with understanding the creation story."

Kettle and Stony Point Council

What's Important to Learn About the Historical Context of Treaties?

A word from Author and Historian David Plain, Aamjiwnaang First Nation @daviddplain

"Words spoken over a wampum were solemn words, never to be broken. When we think about treaties we think about agreeing together: nin bejigwendamin. If we agree together, we have begun reconciliation."

How Can Wampum Strings Be Used in the Classroom?

A word from Cecil Isaac, Bkejwanong Territory (also known as Walpole Island First Nation)

"It's all about relationships. An equal partnership where together we build this relationship based on our grandfather teachings. Our purpose of being here is to teach the next generation."

Wampum Strings

wampun string exercise for school

Cecil Isaac shares Wampum Strings with classes with a focus on thinking about the grandfather teachings, identity, and pathways.

Treaties Recognition Curriculum Linked Resources

The following pre-publication document beside has highlights on the changes to curriculum for grades 4-6, 7-8, CDC2D, CDC2P. The updated documents can be found below.


The following side by side overall expectations along with big ideas have been pulled together to support planning across the grades.

Grade 1, 2, 3 Social Studies Overview
Grade 4, 5, 6 Social Studies Overview
Grade 7,8 History Overview

Sparking Inquiry with Questions

The following questions have been created using the curriculum expectations to frame classroom thinking around treaty education.

  • What is my relationship with the land?
  • What are different perspectives and how do they impact me today?
  • How can I raise awareness?
  • What are my responsibilities?

Primary Junior:

  • What can I learn from the stories connected to the wampum belts?
  • What are the different viewpoints of land use and how does this impact the environment?
  • How do my actions today impact the future?


  • What are the different perspectives of those that entered into treaties?
  • What are the different viewpoints of land use and ownership?
  • How do my actions today impact the future?
  • How can I ensure I am upholding my treaty responsibilities?


  • What treaties cover the area I live in?
  • What rights and responsibilities are detailed in the treaties?
  • Are there any land claims in my area?
  • As an individual what are my treaty responsibilities?
  • What actions can I take to ensure I am upholding my treaty responsibilities?
  • What role does the government play as treaty signatories and in land claims?
  • How can I create awareness of treaties and/or land claims in my area?


  • What is my role in reconciliation?
  • What historical experiences do diverse First Nations share in their Nation to Nation dealings with the Crown over time? Why is this important today?
  • How can I produce information for others to learn what it means to be a treaty person?

Treaty Resource Folder

Curriculum Linked Resources

Treaty Awareness Curriculum Linked Resources

Picture Books to Support Treaty Education

Books to Support Treaty Recognition Week

We Are All Treaty People - Full Book Online Version

We Are All Treaty People Kit Explanation

Anishinabek Nation: Gdoo-Sastamoo Kii Mi Treaty Education Kit Explanation

Maurice Switzer on Treaties

Scholastic Resources - (in every school)

Community Ties: What makes communities strong? Exploring First Nations, Inuit, and Métis Cultures

We Are the Land: How are people connected to the land?

Scholastic Resource: Community Ties


The First Nations and Treaties Map of Ontario resources were created by the Ministry of Aboriginal Affairs to increase awareness among educators and students about treaties in Ontario. Check out ideas for using this map in classrooms, especially in Grade 3, 6, 8, 10, 11, and 12 classes. These maps and the accompanying teaching resources are helping students to learn about the significance of the treaties and the shared history of First Nations and non-Indigenous Ontarians. Our province has also designated the first week of November as Treaties Recognition Week to promote public education and awareness about treaties and treaty relationships. Download or order this map through ServiceOntario Publications (1-800-668-9938)

Map of Ontario Treaties and Reserves

This resource allows you to input your city, address, or postal code to find out which treaties between the government and Indigenous Nations were made on the land you are on.

Office of the Treaty Commissioner Treaty Map: Descriptions of the 11 Numbered Treaties


Trick or Treaty?

This feature documentary by acclaimed filmmaker Alanis Obomsawin (Kanehsatake: 270 Years of Resistance) profiles Indigenous leaders in their quest for justice as they seek to establish dialogue with the Canadian government. By tracing the history of their ancestors since the signing of Treaty No. 9, these leaders aim to raise awareness about issues vital to First Nations in Canada: respect for and protection of their lands and their natural resources, and the right to hunt and fish so that their societies can prosper. In recent years, an awareness-raising movement has been surfacing in First Nations communities. In this powerful documentary, those who refuse to surrender are given a chance to speak out.


A series of six webinars produced by Canada's History Society and the Treaty Relations Commission of Manitoba, which aims to present diverse perspectives on treaties. Topics include the significance of the Royal Proclamation and the relationship between treaties and the Indian Act.

Classroom Strategies and Teaching Resource Links


Thinking About the Spirit and Intent of Treaties

Let’s Talk Treaty, Episode 2: Spirit and the Intent of Treaties with Elder Harry Bone:




Click on the following Educator's Guide to access ideas for classroom learning --->

Kayak Magazine: Treaties and Treaty Relationships


Lesson plans and video resources including a treaties video series, treaty texts from the Robinson and Williams Treaties, and the full text of the Royal Proclamation of 1763.

Gdoo-Sastamookii Mi: Understanding Our Nation to Relationship – Resource Material from the Teachers Guide with the corresponding page number.

The Royal Proclamation

Treaties Matter: Understanding Ipperwash


<-- Search for "Treaties" in the tool bar on the main page for current and engaging resources to support classroom learning.

This resource provides information on all of the Treaties made between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people within the boundaries of the province. The site includes teacher resources, books for students, and academic resources.

The Treaties: Two Different Views

Compare and Contrast Perspectives:

Government View on Treaties/ First Nations View on Treaties

European View on Land Ownership/ First Nations View on Land Ownership

First Nations View on Leadership & Consensus/ European View on Leadership & Consensus

Two Sides to the Story


Assesmbly of First Nations Treaty Toolkit


Online Resource for the Classroom

“Lessons From the Earth is a resource guide for educators that provides a practical application of Indigenous Knowledge into the classroom. The focus of learning is grounded in a traditional Anishinaabe story, Jiig Nong Aadsookan, The Fisher Story. Included are sample lessons and video modules that support the traditional teachings embedded within the story. Lessons From the Earth is a provocation for student inquiry into topics such as the environment, First Peoples of Canada, Science, Social Studies, as well as important concepts such as love, respect and balance.” Jodie Williams

Led by Jodie Williams, Co-chair First Nations, Métis & Inuit Education Association of Ontario along with The Provincial Subject Association for teachers of First Nations,Métis & Inuit Studies and Native Languages, this resource contains direct links to the Ontario Catholic Graduate Expectations, the Catholic Virtues as well as the 7 Sacred Grandfather Teachings of the Anishinaabek.

Students will hear The Fisher Story narrated by Isaac Murdoch, Fish Clan, Serpent River First Nation and will deepen their understanding as they enjoy illustrations by Christi Belcourt, Métis Nation.

While there are numerous themes and big ideas throughout the story, the resources provided focus on the seven listed below. With each big idea, you will find an explanation, supporting video and sample lesson plans,

Zhawenjige: Walking With A Good Heart

Dodem: The Clan System

Mangide’e: Courage

Zaagi’idiwin: Love

Bagijigan: Offerings

Maawanji’idiwag: Working Together in a Good Way

Omdendum: Hope For the Future

Each lesson provides teachers with an Overview, suggestions for Assessment, Minds On Activity, Action and Consolidation activities. These free Resource Kits are available online at Project H.O.M.E. (Helping Our Mother Earth) under the Education Resource Kit tab or you can download these free resources from iBooks directly onto your iPad, iPhone and MacBook.

Primary Resource Kit

Junior Resource Kit

Intermediate Resource Kit

It is evident that this resource was a passion project and special recognition must be given to all those that contributed in the development and writing of these resources.

Jerry Otowadjiwan, 4th Degree Mide, Wikwemikong Unceded Indian Reserve

Lorraine Liberty, 1st Degree Mide, Nipissing First Nation

Isaac Murdoch, Traditional Teacher, Serpent River First Nation

Ray John Jr., Traditional Teacher, Oneida Nation

Mary Lou Smoke, Anishinaabe, Batchewana First Nation

MaryAnn Naokwegijig Corbiere, Assistant Professor, Department of Indigenous Studies

Christi Belcourt, Artist, Métis Nation

Nancy Rowe, Community Consultant, Mississaugas of New Credit First Nation

Wesli Day, Videographer, Serpent River First Nation

Dan Reidy, Academic Coordinator DPCDSB

Geordie Barnett, Academic Consultant DPCDSB

Jodie Williams, Department Head, St. Thomas Aquinas CSS

Kelly Crawford, FNMI Education Consultant, M’Chigeeng First Nation