November 1- 7, 2021
St. Clair Catholic District School Board Acknowledgement of Ancestral Lands
We are thankful for the Creator’s gift of Mother Earth, providing everything we need for life: air, water, land, and all of Creation. We acknowledge that this land, surrounded by water, on which we are gathered today is part of the ancestral land of the Anishinaabeg and later the Lunaapeewak. Together, as treaty people, we have a shared responsibility to act with respect for the environment, protecting the future for those generations to come.
Language Pronunciations Anishinaabeg (ah-nish-i-nah-beg) Lunaapeewak (le-naw-powuk)
Artwork by Cedric Isaac, Bkejwanong Territory
Sign Up for Professional Development Before Treaty Week
Treaty Education in the Elementary Classroom
Talking About Treaties in the Classroom
Sign Up for Live Events During Treaty Week
Treaty Week Board Wide Learning
Treaty Recognition Board Wide Opening
David Plain, Aamjiwnaang First Nation
Cecil Isaac, Bkejwanong Territory
Deb and Barry Milliken, Kettle and Stony Point First Nation
Learning and Thinking About Place
David Plain, Aamjiwnaang First Nation, talks about Aamjiwnaang, "it flows contrary".
Eelünaapéewi Lahkéewiit coming soon
Thinking About Treaties as Relationships with All of Creation
Deb and Barry Milliken, Kettle and Stony Point First Nation, think about treaties as a relationship with all of Creation.
What is my relationship with all of creation?
Thinking About Wampum Belts
David Plain, Aamjiwnaang First Nation, Author and Historian, talks about the Dish with One Spoon and Two Row Wampum Belts (4:30 min)
Sparking Inquiry with Questions
The following questions have been created using the curriculum expectations to frame classroom thinking around treaty education across all grade levels.
What is my relationship with the land?
What are different perspectives and how do they impact me today?
How can I raise awareness?
What are my responsibilities?
What can I learn from the stories connected to the wampum belts?
What are the different viewpoints of land use and how does this impact the environment?
How do my actions today impact the future?
What are the different perspectives of those that entered into treaties?
What are the different viewpoints of land use and ownership?
How do my actions today impact the future?
How can I ensure I am upholding my treaty responsibilities?
What treaties cover the area I live in?
What rights and responsibilities are detailed in the treaties?
Are there any land claims in my area?
As an individual what are my treaty responsibilities?
What actions can I take to ensure I am upholding my treaty responsibilities?
What role does the government play as treaty signatories and in land claims?
How can I create awareness of treaties and/or land claims in my area?
What is my role in reconciliation?
What historical experiences do diverse First Nations share in their Nation to Nation dealings with the Crown over time? Why is this important today?
How can I produce information for others to learn what it means to be a treaty person?
Create a display to teach others about the importance of being a treaty person and that we are ALL treaty people! Send a pic of your class display to email@example.com by October 28 to be entered to receive a class draw to raise awareness and education during treaty week.
Treaty Week Reflection
Let us remember that our Indigenous neighbours gently walked this land.
Let us remember that Treaties are promises.
Let us respect those promises.
Let us remember all of the promises in our lives.
Let us respect those promises.
Let us remember that bullying causes pain and hurt.
Let us remember to be kind to everyone.
Let us remember to stick up for someone who is being bullied.
Let us remember to treat others the way we want to be treated.
Let us remember to love our neighbours.
Let us know peace.
For as long as the moon shall rise.
For as long as the rivers shall flow.
For as long as the sun shall shine.
For as long as the grass shall grow.
Let us know peace.
Did you know.....
Treaties Recognition Week was introduced to honour the importance of treaties and to help Ontarians learn more about treaty rights and treaty relationships.
Every Ontarian is a treaty person
Most of Ontario is covered by 46 treaties and other agreements, such as land purchases by the Crown signed between 1781 and 1930
First Nations had their own process of Treaty-making that had existed for thousands of years
Treaties are legal agreements between two or more nations
Treaty-making preceded North American settlement.
Treaty outlines the terms, relationship and conditions of settlement in Indigenous Territories.
Both Settler and Indigenous Nations have a responsibility for knowing and upholding the Treaty obligations.
United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples recognizes, “the urgent need to respect and promote the rights of Indigenous peoples affirmed in treaties, agreements and other constructive arrangements with States”
(First Nations, Métis, and Inuit Education Association of Ontario)
Call 62.i. - Education for Reconciliation (TRC Calls to Action)
“We call upon the federal, provincial, and territorial governments, in consultation and collaboration with Survivors, Aboriginal peoples, and educators, to make age-appropriate curriculum on … Treaties … a mandatory education requirement for Kindergarten to Grade 12 students.”
What is a Treaty?
Treaties represent a relationship – built on mutual peace, respect and friendship
They are a way to explain how parties intend to "treat" each other for the duration of a relationship
Recognize First Nations as self-governing nations – which is acknowledged and protected by the Royal Proclamation of 1763 and the Canadian Constitution
There are obligations and benefits on both sides of the Treaties
Interested in a free online course through the University of Toronto on Treaty Education?
Check out this comprehensive resource!
Treaties Recognition Week helps students, staff, and the public learn about treaties from diverse Indigenous perspectives and encourages greater understanding of the importance of treaties in Ontario. Treaties negotiated in Ontario over the past 250 years are the foundation of the relationship between governments and Indigenous peoples. They represent a mutual commitment to building a prosperous future for everyone. Historical treaties are important to the ongoing relationship between the Crown and First Nations and are still relevant today. By building understanding of these agreements, we are moving towards reconciliation with Indigenous people. This helps create equitable and respectful relationships, enabling a better way forward together.
How Are Treaties Meaningful Today?
A word from Chief Jason Henry, Kettle and Stony Point First Nation @ChiefStony
"We look at treaties as a relationship between and among nations. They are a nation to nation agreement. To understand treaties, we start with understanding the creation story."
What's Important to Learn About the Historical Context of Treaties?
A word from Author and Historian David Plain, Aamjiwnaang First Nation @daviddplain
"Words spoken over a wampum were solemn words, never to be broken. When we think about treaties we think about agreeing together: nin bejigwendamin. If we agree together, we have begun reconciliation."
It's All About Relationships
A word from Cecil Isaac, Bkejwanong Territory (also known as Walpole Island First Nation)
"It's all about relationships. An equal partnership where together we build this relationship based on our grandfather teachings. Our purpose of being here is to teach the next generation."
Treaties Recognition Curriculum Linked Resources
Ezhi-nawending: How we are related, a free and interactive online learning portal recently launched by Anishinabek Nation. With 80 recorded and colourfully animated videos, plus games and interactive features, it shares lessons Canadians of all ages should learn, in a package that's appealing and fun for kids. It's designed for elementary students, but accessible to anyone with a computer and an internet connection.
Online Kayak Magazine: Treaties and Treaty Relationships
ESRI StoryMap - Treaties and Agreements
This ESRI StoryMap is designed for teachers as an introduction to understanding treaties and agreements between Indigenous Peoples, the Crown, the federal government, as well as provinces and territories. Explore this StoryMap, starting from what is currently referred to as upstate New York, to learn about the Two-Row Wampum Treaty, then journey over to the eastern coast of Canada to discover the history of the Peace and Friendship Treaties. Make your way west, learning about the Pre-Confederation Treaties, Numbered Treaties, and Métis scrip, and then travel north to learn about Inuit land claims. Finish your journey by exploring a map of the modern treaties within Canada.
Voices From Here Interactive Resource
Voices from Here: Rick Hill
In this interview, Rick Hill shares about the complexities of Haudenosaunee territory, wampum belt teachings, and his work to repatriate material culture to his community.
This Education Guide references the Naskumituwin (Treaty) Heritage Minute. Click here to watch the Minute:
This Education Guide references à la Minute du patrimoine Naskumituwin (Traite). Click here to watch the Minute: :
Picture Books to Support Treaty Education
(the books listed in this doc are in all schools)
Wampum Belt Teaching Kit
every school currently has a wampum belt teaching kit
David Plain, Aamjiwnaang First Nation, Author and Historian, talks with classes about Wampum Belts.
The Wampum Belt: A Nation to Nation Relationship
Learn the Importance of Wampum
Alan Ojiig Corbiere discusses Wampum Belts and their direct relevance to the relationships between Indigenous peoples and Canada. Wampum Belts are living symbols of our treaty agreements and the honour of keeping them, among other things.
The Two Row Wampum
The Dish With One Spoon
Watch Isaac Murdoch from Serpent River First Nation explain the significance of the Dish With One Spoon Wampum agreement.
What are some important concepts to be learned from this agreement?
Thinking About Wampum Strings as Promises with Cecil Isaac
We Are All Treaty People
David Plain, Aamjiwnaang First Nation, Author and Historian, talks with classes about Local Treaties.
Maurice Switzer on Treaties
We Are All Treaty People - Full Book Online Version
We Are All Treaty People Kit Explanation
Anishinabek Nation: Gdoo-Sastamoo Kii Mi Treaty Education Kit Explanation
(10 copies of each in every school)
Treaties Matter: Understanding Ipperwash
The James Bay Treaty (Treaty No. 9) Exhibit
The First Nations and Treaties Map of Ontario resources were created by the Ministry of Aboriginal Affairs to increase awareness among educators and students about treaties in Ontario. Check out ideas for using this map in classrooms, especially in Grade 3, 5-8, 10, 11, and 12 classes. These maps and the accompanying teaching resources are helping students to learn about the significance of the treaties and the shared history of First Nations and non-Indigenous Ontarians. Our province has also designated the first week of November as Treaties Recognition Week to promote public education and awareness about treaties and treaty relationships. Download or order this map through ServiceOntario Publications (1-800-668-9938)
Schools also have 1 large copy of the map.
Interactive Map to Explore Languages, Territories, and Treaties
Map of Ontario Treaties and Reserves
This resource allows you to input your city, address, or postal code to find out which treaties between the government and Indigenous Nations were made on the land you are on.
Trick or Treaty?
This feature documentary by acclaimed filmmaker Alanis Obomsawin (Kanehsatake: 270 Years of Resistance) profiles Indigenous leaders in their quest for justice as they seek to establish dialogue with the Canadian government. By tracing the history of their ancestors since the signing of Treaty No. 9, these leaders aim to raise awareness about issues vital to First Nations in Canada: respect for and protection of their lands and their natural resources, and the right to hunt and fish so that their societies can prosper. In recent years, an awareness-raising movement has been surfacing in First Nations communities. In this powerful documentary, those who refuse to surrender are given a chance to speak out.
Educator's Guide: Trick or Treaty
Classroom Strategies and Teaching Resource Links
Facing History Canada Resources
Critical Thinking Lesson Plans and Teaching Materials!
A series of six webinars produced by Canada's History Society and the Treaty Relations Commission of Manitoba, which aims to present diverse perspectives on treaties. Topics include the significance of the Royal Proclamation and the relationship between treaties and the Indian Act.
Indigenous Perspectives Education Guide
Guide pédagogiques perspectives autochtones
Thinking About the Spirit and Intent of Treaties
Let’s Talk Treaty, Episode 2: Spirit and the Intent of Treaties with Elder Harry Bone:
Click on the following Educator's Guide to access ideas for classroom learning --->
Online Resource for Primary, Junior, and Intermediate Classrooms
This resource contains direct links to the Ontario Catholic Graduate Expectations, the Catholic Virtues as well as the 7 Sacred Grandfather Teachings of the Anishinaabek.
HOW TO USE THIS RESOURCE
The Fisher Story
Central to this resource is The Fisher Story as shared by Isaac Murdoch. This focus of learning is in relation to Indigenous knowledge systems, the environment and how we are intricately connected. Throughout the story, many lessons are learned in regards to our conduct as well as our roles and responsibilities.
Prior to reading or watching The Fisher Story it is recommended that teachers take time to activate student thinking with regards to existing knowledge. Consider introducing key concepts such as love, balance, respect, and our relationship with all of creation.
Sacred Fisher Story - Animated Version
After reading or watching The Fisher Story, there are many possible activities that can be done to reinforce and further explore the story’s messages.
Although there are a variety of themes embedded within the story, this resource focuses on 7 big ideas:
Zhawenjige: Walking With A Good Heart
Dodem: The Clan System
Maawanji’idiwag: Working Together in a Good Way
Omdendum: Hope For the Future
Each big idea has an explanation, supporting video and sample lesson plans.
Each division contains a series of activities based on the 7 big ideas listed above.
Each activity has a downloadable pdf that provides a sample lesson plan as well as possible connections to curriculum from a wide range of subject areas.
“Lessons From the Earth Resource Kit above is a resource guide for educators that provides a practical application of Indigenous Knowledge into the classroom. The focus of learning is grounded in a traditional Anishinaabe story, Jiig Nong Aadsookan, The Fisher Story. Included are sample lessons and video modules that support the traditional teachings embedded within the story. Lessons From the Earth is a provocation for student inquiry into topics such as the environment, First Peoples of Canada, Science, Social Studies, as well as important concepts such as love, respect and balance.” Jodie Williams
Comprehensive Land Claims: Modern Treaties
Lesson plans and video resources including a treaties video series, treaty texts from the Robinson and Williams Treaties, and the full text of the Royal Proclamation of 1763.
Gdoo-Sastamookii Mi: Understanding Our Nation to Relationship – Resource Material from the Teachers Guide with the corresponding page number.
The Royal Proclamation
This resource provides information on all of the Treaties made between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people within the boundaries of the province. The site includes teacher resources, books for students, and academic resources.
The Treaties: Two Different Views
Compare and Contrast Perspectives:
Government View on Treaties/ First Nations View on Treaties
European View on Land Ownership/ First Nations View on Land Ownership
First Nations View on Leadership & Consensus/ European View on Leadership & Consensus
Assesmbly of First Nations Treaty Toolkit
Kahoot! Treaties Quiz
The following pre-publication document beside has highlights on the changes to curriculum for grades 4-6, 7-8, CDC2D, CDC2P. The updated documents can also be found below.