Treaties Recognition Week

November 6- 12, 2022

St. Clair Catholic District School Board Acknowledgement of Ancestral Lands

We are thankful for the Creator’s gift of Mother Earth, providing everything we need for life: air, water, land, and all of Creation. We acknowledge that this land, surrounded by water, on which we are gathered today is part of the ancestral land of the Anishinaabeg and the Lunaapeewak. Together, as treaty people, we have a shared responsibility to act with respect for the environment, protecting the future for those generations to come.

Language Pronunciations Anishinaabeg (ah-nish-i-nah-beg) Lunaapeewak (le-naw-powuk)

Artwork by Cedric Isaac, Bkejwanong Territory

Sparking Inquiry with Questions

The following questions have been created using the curriculum expectations to frame classroom thinking around treaty education across all grade levels.

  • What is my relationship with the land?

  • What are different perspectives and how do they impact me today?

  • How can I raise awareness?

  • What are my responsibilities?

  • What is the significance of the Two Row Wampum?

  • What is the significance of the Dish with One Spoon Wampum Belt Treaty?

  • How might differing interpretations of treaties affect Indigenous communities in the present day?

Primary Junior:

  • What can I learn from the stories connected to the wampum belts?

  • What are the different viewpoints of land use and how does this impact the environment?

  • How do my actions today impact the future?


  • What are the different perspectives of those that entered into treaties?

  • What are the different viewpoints of land use and ownership?

  • How do my actions today impact the future?

  • How can I ensure I am upholding my treaty responsibilities?


  • What treaties cover the area I live in?

  • What rights and responsibilities are detailed in the treaties?

  • Are there any land claims in my area?

  • As an individual what are my treaty responsibilities?

  • What actions can I take to ensure I am upholding my treaty responsibilities?

  • What role does the government play as treaty signatories and in land claims?

  • How can I create awareness of treaties and/or land claims in my area?


  • What is my role in reconciliation?

  • What historical experiences do diverse First Nations share in their Nation to Nation dealings with the Crown over time? Why is this important today?

  • How can I produce information for others to learn what it means to be a treaty person?

Sign Up for Live Events During Treaty Week ...

Register Here

Painting and Thinking About the Land and All of Creation with Moses Lunham, Kettle and Stony Point First Nation

K- 3

The Story of the Muskrat in the Creation Story.

Grades 4 - 12

The Story of Mother Earth

Identity, Relationships, and Sovereignty with Dean Jacobs, Bkejwanong Territory

Critically Thinking about the Haudenosaunee Thanksgiving Address & Making Connections to Promises and Treaties with Mother Earth

Sharing Stories Connected with the Land with Lynda Lou Classens, Bkejwanong Territory

Participate in a Story Trail!

Intermediate classes, contact for the opportunity to bring a story to life to lead your school in an story trail!

Did You Know?

Ontario is also hosting a series of virtual Living Library events for elementary, secondary, and post-secondary students, and the broader public across the province. Event details are posted on and .

Here are some highlights of resources to connect with:

Elementary Curriculum Guide (English) (French)

Secondary Guide (accompanying hands on kit, Gdoo-sastamoo kii mi, is in your school)

Video Resources along with discussion guides: and

In these videos, Indigenous Elders and knowledge keepers from across Ontario share their perspectives on the importance of treaties, treaty relationships and treaty rights in Ontario. Below are some suggestions for grade-specific videos that include a worksheet to help guide discussion in your classroom. Scroll up and down on the site for more videos.

Early Years: Chad Solomon (and Rabbit) on what is a promise | Worksheet - Chad Solomon video (French descriptive video and French worksheet)

Grades 1 - 6: Maurice Switzer on what is a treaty anyway | Worksheet – Maurice Switzer video (French descriptive video and French worksheet)

Grade 9 Geography: Bentley Cheechoo on becoming a treaty Knowledge Keeper | Worksheet – Bentley Cheechoo video (French descriptive video and French worksheet)

Grade 10 Civics and Citizenship: Robert Greene on how treaties affect all aspects of life | Worksheet – Robert Green video (French descriptive video and French worksheet)

Treaty Week Board Wide Learning

Treaty Recognition Board Wide Opening

Coming Soon

Learning and Thinking About Place

Aamjiwnaang with David Plain.mp4

David Plain, Aamjiwnaang First Nation, talks about Aamjiwnaang, "it flows contrary".

(6 min)

Cecil Isaac Bkejwanong.mp4

Cecil Isaac, Bkejwanong Territory, talks about Bkejwanong, “where the waters divide”.

(5 min)

Deb and Barry Milliken Kettle and Stony Point Reflect about Home.mp4

Deb and Barry Milliken, Kettle and Stony Point, talk about Kettle Point, also known as Wiiwkwedong “where the land goes around in a bay”, and Stony Point, known as Aazhoodena “the part over there”.

(12 min - with a natural pausing point at 6.30 to reflect about worldview and connection to place)

Eelünaapéewi Lahkéewiit coming soon

Thinking About Treaties as Relationships with All of Creation

Deb and Barry Milliken Perspective on Treaties as Relationships with all of Creation.mp4

Deb and Barry Milliken, Kettle and Stony Point First Nation, think about treaties as a relationship with all of Creation.

(7.30 min)

What is my relationship with all of creation?

Thinking About Wampum Belts

David Plain talks about the Dish with One Spoon and Two Row Wampum Belts with pics.mp4

David Plain, Aamjiwnaang First Nation, Author and Historian, talks about the Dish with One Spoon and Two Row Wampum Belts (4.30 min)

What are different perspectives and how do they impact me today?

Classroom Learning

Treaty Week Reflection

Let us remember that our Indigenous neighbours gently walked this land.

Let us remember that Treaties are promises.

Let us respect those promises.

Let us remember all of the promises in our lives.

Let us respect those promises.

Let us remember that bullying causes pain and hurt.

Let us remember to be kind to everyone.

Let us remember to stick up for someone who is being bullied.

Let us remember to treat others the way we want to be treated.

Let us remember to love our neighbours.


Let us know peace.

For as long as the moon shall rise.

For as long as the rivers shall flow.

For as long as the sun shall shine.

For as long as the grass shall grow.

Let us know peace.

Cheyenne Prayer

Did you know.....

Treaties Recognition Week was introduced to honour the importance of treaties and to help Ontarians learn more about treaty rights and treaty relationships.

Every Ontarian is a treaty person

Most of Ontario is covered by 46 treaties and other agreements, such as land purchases by the Crown signed between 1781 and 1930

First Nations had their own process of Treaty-making that had existed for thousands of years

Treaties are legal agreements between two or more nations

Treaty-making preceded North American settlement.

Treaty outlines the terms, relationship and conditions of settlement in Indigenous Territories.

Both Settler and Indigenous Nations have a responsibility for knowing and upholding the Treaty obligations.

United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples recognizes, “the urgent need to respect and promote the rights of Indigenous peoples affirmed in treaties, agreements and other constructive arrangements with States”

(First Nations, Métis, and Inuit Education Association of Ontario)

Call 62.i. - Education for Reconciliation (TRC Calls to Action)

“We call upon the federal, provincial, and territorial governments, in consultation and collaboration with Survivors, Aboriginal peoples, and educators, to make age-appropriate curriculum on … Treaties … a mandatory education requirement for Kindergarten to Grade 12 students.”

What is a Treaty?

Treaties represent a relationship – built on mutual peace, respect and friendship

They are a way to explain how parties intend to "treat" each other for the duration of a relationship

Recognize First Nations as self-governing nations – which is acknowledged and protected by the Royal Proclamation of 1763 and the Canadian Constitution

There are obligations and benefits on both sides of the Treaties

Treaties Recognition Week helps students, staff, and the public learn about treaties from diverse Indigenous perspectives and encourages greater understanding of the importance of treaties in Ontario. Treaties negotiated in Ontario over the past 250 years are the foundation of the relationship between governments and Indigenous peoples. They represent a mutual commitment to building a prosperous future for everyone. Historical treaties are important to the ongoing relationship between the Crown and First Nations and are still relevant today. By building understanding of these agreements, we are moving towards reconciliation with Indigenous people. This helps create equitable and respectful relationships, enabling a better way forward together.


How Are Treaties Meaningful Today?

A word from Chief Jason Henry, Kettle and Stony Point First Nation @ChiefStony

"We look at treaties as a relationship between and among nations. They are a nation to nation agreement. To understand treaties, we start with understanding the creation story."

Kettle and Stony Point Council

What's Important to Learn About the Historical Context of Treaties?

A word from Author and Historian David Plain, Aamjiwnaang First Nation @daviddplain

"Words spoken over a wampum were solemn words, never to be broken. When we think about treaties we think about agreeing together: nin bejigwendamin. If we agree together, we have begun reconciliation."

It's All About Relationships

A word from Cecil Isaac, Bkejwanong Territory (also known as Walpole Island First Nation)

"It's all about relationships. An equal partnership where together we build this relationship based on our grandfather teachings. Our purpose of being here is to teach the next generation."

Treaties Recognition Curriculum Linked Digital Resources

Interactive Online Learning Portal - This is terrific and comprehensive across the grade levels!

“Treaties are responsible for the peaceful settlement of what everybody knows as Canada today,” Switzer, a Muskrat and Wolf Clan member of the Mississaugas of Alderville First Nation, says in an educational video produced by Anishinabek Nation.

That’s why it’s important for all Canadians to learn about the land treaties that govern us.

These books are also in every school.

Ezhi-nawending: How we are related, a free and interactive online learning portal recently launched by Anishinabek Nation. With 80 recorded and colourfully animated videos, plus games and interactive features, it shares lessons Canadians of all ages should learn, in a package that's appealing and fun for kids. It's designed for elementary students, but accessible to anyone with a computer and an internet connection.

Online Kayak Magazine: Treaties and Treaty Relationships


ESRI StoryMap - Treaties and Agreements

This ESRI StoryMap is designed for teachers as an introduction to understanding treaties and agreements between Indigenous Peoples, the Crown, the federal government, as well as provinces and territories. Explore this StoryMap, starting from what is currently referred to as upstate New York, to learn about the Two-Row Wampum Treaty, then journey over to the eastern coast of Canada to discover the history of the Peace and Friendship Treaties. Make your way west, learning about the Pre-Confederation Treaties, Numbered Treaties, and Métis scrip, and then travel north to learn about Inuit land claims. Finish your journey by exploring a map of the modern treaties within Canada.

Voices From Here Interactive Resource

Voices from Here: Rick Hill

In this interview, Rick Hill shares about the complexities of Haudenosaunee territory, wampum belt teachings, and his work to repatriate material culture to his community.


This Education Guide references the Naskumituwin (Treaty) Heritage Minute. Click here to watch the Minute:


This Education Guide references à la Minute du patrimoine Naskumituwin (Traite). Click here to watch the Minute: :

FR_basic_5Ws_chart (1).pdf

Picture Books to Support Treaty Education

(the books listed in this doc are in all schools)

Books to Support Treaty Recognition Week

Scholastic Resources

(10 copies of each in every school)

Community Ties: What makes communities strong? Exploring First Nations, Inuit, and Métis Cultures

Scholastic Resource: Community Ties

We Are the Land: How are people connected to the land?

Wampum Belts

Wampum Belt Teaching Kit

  • every school currently has a wampum belt teaching kit

David Plain, Aamjiwnaang First Nation, Author and Historian, talks with classes about Wampum Belts.

David Plain talks about the Dish with One Spoon and Two Row Wampum Belts with pics.mp4

David Plain, Aamjiwnaang First Nation, Author and Historian, talks about the Dish with One Spoon and Two Row Wampum Belts (4.30 min)

David Plain Wampum Belts 2020.mp4

David Plain, Aamjiwnaang First Nation, Author and Historian, talks about a series of Wampum Belts that are included in the Wampum Belt Teaching Kits at every school. (50 min)

Maurice Switzer:

The Wampum Belt: A Nation to Nation Relationship

5.34 min

Learn the Importance of Wampum

Alan Ojiig Corbiere discusses Wampum Belts and their direct relevance to the relationships between Indigenous peoples and Canada. Wampum Belts are living symbols of our treaty agreements and the honour of keeping them, among other things.

The Two Row Wampum

  • What is the significance of the Two Row Wampum?

  • How might differing interpretations of treaties affect Indigenous communities in the present day?

The Dish With One Spoon

  • What is the significance of the Dish With One Spoon Wampum Belt Treaty?

  • How might differing interpretations of treaties affect Indigenous communities in the present day?

Watch Isaac Murdoch from Serpent River First Nation explain the significance of the Dish With One Spoon Wampum agreement.

  • What are some important concepts to be learned from this agreement?

  • What are our roles and responsibilities to the environment? With each other?

Thinking About Wampum Strings as Promises with Cecil Isaac


David Plain Local Treaty Education 2020.mp4

50 min

David Plain, Aamjiwnaang First Nation, Author and Historian, talks with classes about Local Treaties.

Maurice Switzer on Treaties

We Are All Treaty People - Full Book Online Version

Click "Watch on YouTube"

Nous sommes tous des gens issus de traités - Livre complet

Click "Watch on YouTube"

Digital Toolkit & School Hands On Kit



Elementary Treaty Education Digital Resource: Ezhi-Nawending: How We Are Related is for grades K-8

Secondary Treaty Education Digital Resource: Gdoo-Sastamoo Kii Mi: This is our Understanding is for grades 9-12

We Are All Treaty People Kit Explanation

(These kits are in elementary schools)

Anishinabek Nation: Gdoo-Sastamoo Kii Mi Treaty Education Kit Explanation (This kit is in secondary schools)

Our Treaty History: Bkejwanong Territory

Our Treaty History: Bkejwanong Territory

Our Treaty History.pdf

The St. Anne Treaty: Walpole Island First Nation

1796: The St. Anne Treaty

Treaties Matter: Understanding Ipperwash


Out of response to the Ipperwash crisis of 1995, a virtual exhibit was created by Summer Bressette, Kettle and Stony Point First Nation, and Monica Virtue with the Lambton Museum. It is called / We Are Going Home.

Using interviews, maps, moving images, soundscapes, and wampum, it illustrates the relationship between people, land, and Anishinaabeg Nationhood.

The slide deck along with the virtual talk can be found here.

The James Bay Treaty (Treaty No. 9) Exhibit

Archives of Ontario James Bay Treaty lesson kits for grade 6 and grade 9 students and map of Treaty No. 9 signing locations


The First Nations and Treaties Map of Ontario resources were created by the Ministry of Aboriginal Affairs to increase awareness among educators and students about treaties in Ontario. Check out ideas for using this map in classrooms, especially in Grade 3, 5-8, 10, 11, and 12 classes. These maps and the accompanying teaching resources are helping students to learn about the significance of the treaties and the shared history of First Nations and non-Indigenous Ontarians. Our province has also designated the first week of November as Treaties Recognition Week to promote public education and awareness about treaties and treaty relationships. Download or order this map through ServiceOntario Publications (1-800-668-9938)

Schools also have 1 large copy of the map.

Map of Ontario Treaties and Reserves

This resource allows you to input your city, address, or postal code to find out which treaties between the government and Indigenous Nations were made on the land you are on.

Office of the Treaty Commissioner Treaty Map: Descriptions of the 11 Numbered Treaties

Treaties and Land Claims


Comprehensive Land Claims: Modern Treaties

Revendications territoriales globales : traités modernes

Video Resources

Trick or Treaty?

This feature documentary by acclaimed filmmaker Alanis Obomsawin (Kanehsatake: 270 Years of Resistance) profiles Indigenous leaders in their quest for justice as they seek to establish dialogue with the Canadian government. By tracing the history of their ancestors since the signing of Treaty No. 9, these leaders aim to raise awareness about issues vital to First Nations in Canada: respect for and protection of their lands and their natural resources, and the right to hunt and fish so that their societies can prosper. In recent years, an awareness-raising movement has been surfacing in First Nations communities. In this powerful documentary, those who refuse to surrender are given a chance to speak out.


Classroom Strategies and Teaching Resource Links

A series of six webinars produced by Canada's History Society and the Treaty Relations Commission of Manitoba, which aims to present diverse perspectives on treaties. Topics include the significance of the Royal Proclamation and the relationship between treaties and the Indian Act.


Indigenous Perspectives Education Guide

Indigenous_Perspectives_Education_Guide (1).pdf

Guide pédagogiques perspectives autochtones


Online Resource for Primary, Junior, and Intermediate Classrooms

This resource contains direct links to the Ontario Catholic Graduate Expectations, the Catholic Virtues as well as the 7 Sacred Grandfather Teachings of the Anishinaabek.


The Fisher Story

Central to this resource is The Fisher Story as shared by Isaac Murdoch. This focus of learning is in relation to Indigenous knowledge systems, the environment and how we are intricately connected. Throughout the story, many lessons are learned in regards to our conduct as well as our roles and responsibilities.

Prior to reading or watching The Fisher Story it is recommended that teachers take time to activate student thinking with regards to existing knowledge. Consider introducing key concepts such as love, balance, respect, and our relationship with all of creation.

Sacred Fisher Story - Animated Version

Cross-Curricular Activities

After reading or watching The Fisher Story, there are many possible activities that can be done to reinforce and further explore the story’s messages.

Although there are a variety of themes embedded within the story, this resource focuses on 7 big ideas:

  1. Zhawenjige: Walking With A Good Heart

  2. Dodem: The Clan System

  3. Mangide’e: Courage

  4. Zaagi’idiwin: Love

  5. Bagijigan: Offerings

  6. Maawanji’idiwag: Working Together in a Good Way

  7. Omdendum: Hope For the Future

Each big idea has an explanation, supporting video and sample lesson plans.

Resource Kits

Each division contains a series of activities based on the 7 big ideas listed above.

Each activity has a downloadable pdf that provides a sample lesson plan as well as possible connections to curriculum from a wide range of subject areas.

“Lessons From the Earth Resource Kit above is a resource guide for educators that provides a practical application of Indigenous Knowledge into the classroom. The focus of learning is grounded in a traditional Anishinaabe story, Jiig Nong Aadsookan, The Fisher Story. Included are sample lessons and video modules that support the traditional teachings embedded within the story. Lessons From the Earth is a provocation for student inquiry into topics such as the environment, First Peoples of Canada, Science, Social Studies, as well as important concepts such as love, respect and balance.” Jodie Williams

Lesson plans and video resources including a treaties video series, treaty texts from the Robinson and Williams Treaties, and the full text of the Royal Proclamation of 1763.

The Royal Proclamation

This resource provides information on all of the Treaties made between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people within the boundaries of the province. The site includes teacher resources, books for students, and academic resources.

The Treaties: Two Different Views

Compare and Contrast Perspectives:

Government View on Treaties/ First Nations View on Treaties

European View on Land Ownership/ First Nations View on Land Ownership

First Nations View on Leadership & Consensus/ European View on Leadership & Consensus


Treaty Resources Google Folder

The following pre-publication document beside has highlights on the changes to curriculum for grades 4-6, 7-8, CDC2D, CDC2P. The updated documents can also be found below.


The following side by side overall expectations along with big ideas have been pulled together to support planning across the grades.

Grade 1, 2, 3 Social Studies Overview
Grade 4, 5, 6 Social Studies Overview
Grade 7,8 History Overview